This article examines whether questions embedded in geography textbooks address three components of spatial thinking: concepts of space, tools of representation, and processes of reasoning. A three-dimensional taxonomy of spatial thinking was developed and used to evaluate questions in four high school level geography textbooks. The results indicate that textbook questions focus on low-level spatial concepts more frequently than high-level spatial concepts; few questions require students to create various kinds of spatial representations; and textbook questions only rarely encourage higher-order cognitive skills. The study provides insights on the design and use of textbook questions to foster learning to think spatially.
Jo, I. and S. Bednarz. 2009. Evaluating Geography Textbook Questions from a Spatial Perspective: Using Concepts of Space, Tools of Representation, and Cognitive Processes to Evaluate Spatiality. Journal of Geography 108: 4-13.
Evaluating Geography Textbook Questions from a Spatial Perspective: Using Concepts of Space, Tools of Representation, and Cognitive Processes to Evaluate Spatiality
Injeong Jo and Sarah Bednarz
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