Spatial Concept Perspectives

We have gathered ~300 excerpts from published works about fundamental spatial concept terms. These have been cross-referenced with the concept lexicon appearing on the left. Those terms were drawn from the U.S.National Science Education Standards (NSES 1996) for topic areas B - Physical Science, C - Life Science, D - Earth and Space Science, as well as from the 1994 U.S. Geography Teaching Standards for grades 9-12. Those standards can be browsed here.

spatial concept terms

disciplinary perspectives on "survey perspective"

map perspective

Because the spatial relationship among observations is crucial..., students must become proficient in locating themselves on the topographic base map by comparing observed features of the terrain with features on the map. Many students find this task difficult. Learning how to figure where you are on a topographic map has a counterpart in ordinary life in figuring out where you are on a road map or walking map.

Earth Science

Kastens and Ishikawa (2006)

Spatial thinking in the geosciences and cognitive sciences: A cross-disciplinary look at the intersection of two fields

survey perspective

In a survey perspective, the narrative takes a stationary viewpoint above the environment, locating landmarks relative to each other in terms of an extrinsic frame of reference, typically, north-south-east-west (p 10).


Tversky (2005)

Functional Significance of Visuospatial Representations